Mr. G's AP World History

Chapter 4

Ancient Greece & Rome

– Do the following exercises, using your textbook, to provide you with an introduction to the chapter: Ancient Greece and Rome (Map Exercises)

– Click HERE for the textbook chapter summary.

Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred more or less independent city-states (poleis). This was a situation unlike that in most other contemporary societies, which were either tribal, or kingdoms ruling over relatively large territories. Undoubtedly the geography of Greece—divided and sub-divided by hills, mountains and rivers—contributed to the fragmentary nature of ancient Greece.

On the one hand, the ancient Greeks had no doubt that they were ‘one people’; they had the same religion, same basic culture, and same language. Furthermore, the Greeks were very aware of their tribal origins; Herodotus was able to extensively categorise the city-states by tribe. Yet, although these higher-level relationships existed, they seem to have rarely had a major role in Greek politics. The independence of the poleis was fiercely defended; unification was something rarely contemplated by the ancient Greeks. Even when, during the second Persian invasion of Greece, a group of city-states allied themselves to defend Greece, the vast majority of poleis remained neutral, and after the Persian defeat, the allies quickly returned to infighting (Wikipedia)

As Alexander the Great’s armies advanced, elements of Greek culture fused with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian cultures. The Hellenistic period emerged, approximately, (c.323-30BC). Beginning after the conquests, the period experienced a time of fortune and prosperity. This period experienced progress in the decorative and visual arts, exploration, literature, sculpture, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, and science.

The Hellenistic period emerged, approximately, (c.323-30BC). Beginning after the conquests of Alexander the Great, the period had experienced a time of fortune and prosperity. This period had experienced progress in massive production in the decorative and visual arts, exploration, literature, sculpture, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, and science. The Hellenistic Era experienced an age of “eclecticism”, a new awakening of multiple knowledge and theories open in Greek ideology. Instead of contemplating and debating ideals, logic, extinguished emotion, or consummate beauty, people would explore and analyze reality.[4]

Classical Greece Key Terms & Ideas:

Politics Polis (ie. city states), democracy, oligarchy, tyranny, monarchy
Intellectual/Science Philosophy based on reason/rationality; click HERE for examples of ancient Greek architecture
Geography Islands, mountainous, limited resources
Economics Maritime trading, resource acquisition
Arts Sculpture, the epic (ie. Homer’s Illiad and Odyssey), drama (ie. Sophocles)
Religion Greek gods and mythology
Social Homogenous vs. Heterogeneous (ie. civil war vs. Greek unity against Persia), eudamonia (ie. the Good life)
Key People Pericles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the Great

Classical Rome Key Terms and Ideas:

Politics Roman Republic to Roman Empire; split of Roman Empire; 12 Tables; consuls, senate, tribunes
Intellectual/Science Engineering prowess (ie. Colosseum, aqueducts), Greek and Egyptian influeces; Click HERE to see examples of Roman architecture
Geography Acquisition of Mediterranean basin, most of Europe; East vs. West: Rome vs. Constantinople
Economics Inflation
Arts
Religion Roman polytheism (heavy Greek influence), CHRISTIANITY
Social Patricians vs. Plebeians; pax romana; Christianity, persecution, martyrs; “bread and circuses”
Key People Julius & Augustus Caesar, Jesus Christ, Constantine
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